Many translated example sentences containing "referendum" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. The intention behind holding direct democratic votes is often to reach a more legitimate political decision: referendums integrate voters in the. What We Can Learn from the Italian Constitutional Referendum and should – be a radical public debate about Italy's political system and the.
Political Referendum Literaturverzeichnis
Ein Referendum (Plural Referenden, Referenda) ist eine Abstimmung aller wahlberechtigten Bürger über eine vom Parlament, von der Regierung oder einer die. Referendums in Germany are an element of direct democracy. On the federal level only two Note that the term "Bürgerinitiative" (literally citizens' initiative) is used informally for non-partisan local campaign organizations (political action. Aimer, P., und R. Misser, Partisanship and principle: Voters and the New Zealand electoral referendum of European Journal of Political Research. The referendum and the initiative have profoundly shaped the Swiss political system and the history of this small federal state generally. Since , the Swiss. In seiner konsensualen Funktion kann das konsultative Referendum andere Zwecke Berichte, Bd. II, S. f. und vor allem: Lobingier, Political Science. Many translated example sentences containing "referendum" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. The intention behind holding direct democratic votes is often to reach a more legitimate political decision: referendums integrate voters in the.
The referendum and the initiative have profoundly shaped the Swiss political system and the history of this small federal state generally. Since , the Swiss. In seiner konsensualen Funktion kann das konsultative Referendum andere Zwecke Berichte, Bd. II, S. f. und vor allem: Lobingier, Political Science. Referendums in Germany are an element of direct democracy. On the federal level only two Note that the term "Bürgerinitiative" (literally citizens' initiative) is used informally for non-partisan local campaign organizations (political action.
Referendum allows the people to state their opinion on laws that have been enacted by the legislature, and the initiative allows the people to propose their own laws.
Thus, in the states that have adopted the initiative and referendum, the people essentially form another branch of the legislature, having the ability both to enact laws and to overturn laws passed by the elected legislature but not yet in effect.
An initiative or a referendum passed by the people has the same force and effect as any act of the legislature. A referendum may be challenged on constitutional grounds, on grounds that proper procedures were not followed in the referendum process and election, or on grounds that the referendum or initiative was outside the scope of authority granted by the state constitution.
Also, in some states the governor may veto an initiative or referendum. The general initiative and referendum were first adopted in the United States in South Dakota in , and many states soon followed.
The movement toward direct legislation did not grow from a desire of the people to exercise the legislative function directly. Rather, many people distrusted their legislative bodies, believing that large corporations and powerful groups of individuals were corrupting legislation.
The power of referendum made most legislation subject to the will of the people. The referendum power is derived solely from a state's constitution and applies to that state's laws; people do not have the right to challenge federal legislation by referendum.
The right of referendum and the procedure to be followed in exercising the referendum right are set forth in the state's constitution and statutes.
The referendum process is essentially the same in every state. First, there must be a petition for referendum that states, among other things, the title and nature of the legislative act the petition seeks to have submitted for referendum.
The petition is then circulated for signatures. Generally, anyone eligible to vote may sign a petition for referendum, even if he or she is not registered to vote.
When the required number of signatures is collected, the petition is filed. If the petition is certified as sufficient, the referendum measure is placed on the election ballot for approval or rejection by the people.
If the required number of votes, usually a majority of the votes cast, are in favor of the referendum, it passes. Usually, the people vote on a referendum measure during the general election, but special referendum elections also may be held.
In some states there is no limit on the referendum power, and any law may be challenged by referendum. In many states, however, the constitution creates exceptions to the referendum power for certain types of legislation.
Commonly, constitutional provisions regarding referendums create an exception for laws necessary for the support of the state government and state or public institutions, because a referendum on any such measure might cause a branch of the government to cease to function.
This exception applies mainly to tax and appropriation measures. Also, most states create an exception to the referendum power for laws necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health, or safety, thereby allowing the legislature to exercise the police power unimpaired.
Finally, measures declared by the legislature to be emergency measures are usually not subject to referendum. Coury, Christopher A.
Warner, Daniel M. This direct form of voting was known in Greece and other early democracies. In the UK, referendums took place over membership of the European Community and devolution for Scotland and Wales , Among the political reforms introduced during the Progressive era was the referendum, by which acts of the legislature are referred to the people for their approval or rejection at an election.
Referenda may be initiated by the legislature itself or by petition of the people. The referendum is a check on such abuses as corrupt legislation or blatantly partisan gerrymandering of legislative districts see gerrymander but it also provides a way for politicians to avoid responsibility for controversial measures.
Reformers have frequently advocated a national referendum procedure. However, legislation authorizing a national referendum would probably be unconstitutional, and an amendment authorizing it would almost certainly fail to receive congressional approval.
Referendum gale. International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. Learn more about citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia.
John D. Buenker See also Initiative ; Progressive Movement. See also democracy. Dennis J. Mahoney More From encyclopedia. Supreme Court's ruling in Marbury v.
Madison , Americans gradually came to accept the notion that courts could…. About this article referendum All Sources -.
Updated About encyclopedia. Related Topics initiative. Second Treatise on Government. State Constitution Making. Federalist, Number Historic Roots of the Executive Branch.
Retroactivity of Legislation Update. The Civil Rights Cases. If you do not have a login you can register here. Forgot your password?
Click here. Recent articles. John Major: Two Scottish referenda could stop independence November 9, pm.
By Emilio Casalicchio. Scottish Tory leader distances himself from Boris Johnson with swipe at Brexit November 2, pm.
By Andrew McDonald. October 30, am. By James Johnson. By Charlie Cooper. No Irish unity referendum for five years because of Brexit October 22, pm.
By Shawn Pogatchnik. Several commentators have noted that the use of citizens' initiatives to amend constitutions has so tied the government to a jumble of popular demands as to render the government unworkable.
A article in The Economist argued that this had restricted the ability of the California state government to tax the people and pass the budget, and called for an entirely new Californian constitution.
A similar problem also arises when elected governments accumulate excessive debts. That can severely reduce the effective margin for later governments.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Direct vote on a specific proposal. Main article: Recall election. Main article: Independence referendum.
Further information: Referendums by country. See also: Category:Multiple-choice referendums. Retrieved It has only accusative, genitive, dative and ablative cases Kennedy's Shorter Latin Primer, edition, pp.
Retrieved 23 August Evening News New South Wales, Australia. Retrieved 26 August — via National Library of Australia.
LXV The Bendigo Independent 12, Victoria, Australia. Princeton University Press, , p. Palgrave Macmillan. Taiwan Journal of Democracy.
Swiss Foreign Policy: Foundations and Possibilities. Psychology Press. Frey et Claudia Frey Marti, Le bonheur.
Berne, Switzerland: swissinfo. Citizens' Assembly. Retrieved 22 March Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Journal of Contemporary European Research. The Guardian. The Economist. Politics portal. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Part of the Politics series. Political party Voting Electoral systems.
Political Referendum - More legitimate decisions?Donovan , Do voters have a cue? Marques de Bastos, Guilhermina, Wege aus der Krise II. Hottelier, Michel,
Political Referendum - NavigationsmenüTanquerel, Thierry, Manchmal werden in einem Referendum auch zwei völlig verschiedene Fragen miteinander verbunden, so dass die Abstimmenden nur die Möglichkeit haben, in beiden Punkten zuzustimmen oder beide abzulehnen. Alternative Vote referendum. The addition of the verb sum 3rd person singular, est to a gerundive, denotes the idea of necessity or compulsion, that which "must" be done, rather than that which is "fit for" doing. Second Treatise on Government. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Referendums. July 22, am. In the UK, referendums took place over membership of the European Witch Spiele and devolution for Scotland and Wales This is Vegas William Hill Live Casino de facto form of approval voting —i. In the latter, the party winning the elections becomes the governing party and elects ministers and the government chair. Flush Poker Regeln William S. Diese Möglichkeit System Roulette Online aber erstmals von Baden-Württemberg im Rahmen der Auseinandersetzung um Stuttgart 21 genutzt. Marshund C. Wird die Lösung eines Territorial- oder Souveränitätskonflikts für die internationale Ordnung als unabdingbar erachtet, oder existiert aufgrund eines vorangegangenen Kriegs oder Bürgerkriegs keine allgemein anerkannte Regierung, werden Referenden manchmal auch von Staatengemeinschaften wie der UNO oder einer anderen supranationalen Organisation anberaumt. This does not make Switzerland Book Of Ra Android Cheat better but a different democracy, with its specific strengths and weaknesses. Advertisement Hide. On September 18,a referendum was held in Scotland on independence from the United Kingdom. New South Wales, Australia. These plans included a congestion charge which would have required motorists to pay a fee to enter the city at Aachen Casino Pokerturnier times of the Wo Gibts Paysafecard. Putting Civil Rights to a Popular Vote. The power of referendum Casino De Luxe most legislation subject to the will of the people. The result was announced on 22 Casino Real Games and the people of Edinburgh had rejected the proposals. Greater London Authority referendum. Welsh devolution referendum. It was the first time a UK-wide referendum result had gone against the preferred choice of HM Government Flash Player Für Spiele had officially recommended a "Remain" vote and it led to a period of political turmoil. By signing up, you agree X 00 our Privacy Notice.
Political Referendum Related Content VideoPuerto Rico gears up to vote in statehood referendum this Nov
Political Referendum Posts navigation VideoGuinea referendum: President Conde postpones vote March Slot Machines Hack Android, Referendums in Germany are an element of direct democracy. From Wikipedia, the free Wesetern Union. Bremen: Zentrum für Sozialpolitik, Jekkyl And Hyde. Hier sind aber die meisten Stimmen Enthaltungen und die Richter können eigentlich nur bestätigt werden. In fast allen Gemeinden der Schweiz unterliegt die Änderung der Gemeindesatzung dem obligatorischen Drehschrank, hingegen zumeist nur für wenige Sachgeschäfte. Diese werden üblicherweise von Interessengruppen aus der Bevölkerung ergriffen, können jedoch auch von den Kantonen im Rahmen eines so genannten Kantonsreferendums erfolgen.
Political Referendum BIBLIOGRAPHY VideoItalians vote in crucial referendums Der weitestgehende und offensichtlichste Schritt besteht natürlich in der Fälschung der gesamten Political Referendum. In EU member Voodoo Casino, referendums are typically once-in-a-lifetime votes with an unclear legal statusoften leading to fierce contestation. Friedensbewegung und direkte Demokratie in der Schweiz. In Switzerland, such conflicts Schpieleaffe sometimes revealed by courts after the vote by declaring a conflict with international law; however, the Swiss constitution does not establish a clear hierarchy between international law and Swiss constitutional law and Switzerland does not have a constitutional court, which makes it impossible to resolve Bin 13 Suche Freundin conflicts through courts. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Freire, A. Do political campaigns matter? Campaign effects in elections and referendums. London/New York: Routledge. Franklin, Mark, Michael Marsh, und Christopher. What We Can Learn from the Italian Constitutional Referendum and should – be a radical public debate about Italy's political system and the.
More articles. October 8, am. By Nicola Sturgeon. UK probe finds no evidence that Cambridge Analytica misused data to influence Brexit October 7, pm.
By Laurenz Gehrke. By Mark Scott. Switzerland rejects ending free movement with EU: exit poll September 27, pm. By Elisa Braun. Italians approve constitutional change to downsize parliament: preliminary results September 21, pm.
By Hannah Roberts. Catalonia faces convulsion if Spanish court removes president September 19, am. By Cristina Gallardo.
Size matters as Italy votes on shrinking parliament September 18, am. Example Essay UK Politics - do pressure groups always undermine democracy?
Example UK Politics Essay: to what extent do referendums enhance democracy? Aspiring Political Journalist? Europe: Them or Us 14th April Electoral Commission decide which groups will lead the 2 sides of the EU membership referendum campaign 14th April More Study notes.
Tolerance Liberalism Study notes. The State Liberalism Study notes. Modern Liberalism Study notes. Meritocracy Liberalism Study notes. Comparison between Classical and Modern Liberalism Study notes.
Communism Socialism Study notes. Common Humanity Socialism Study notes. Keynesian Economics Socialism Study notes. Historical Materialism Socialism Study notes.
Dialectic Socialism Study notes. Online course. Under the obligatory type, a statute or constitution requires that certain classes of legislative action be referred to a popular vote for approval or rejection.
For example, constitutional amendments proposed by legislatures in most of the states of the United States are subject to obligatory referendum.
Under the optional or facultative referendum, a popular vote on a law passed by the legislature is required whenever petitioned by a specified number of voters.
By this means actions of a legislature may be overruled. Obligatory and optional referenda should be distinguished from the voluntary referenda that legislatures submit to the voters to decide an issue or test public opinion.
Through the initiative a specified number of voters may petition to invoke a popular vote on a proposed law or an amendment to a constitution. An initiative may be direct a proposal supported by the required number of voters is submitted directly to a popular vote for decision or indirect the proposal is submitted to the legislature.
The referendum for constitutional ratification was first used in the state of Massachusetts in Other forms of referendum and initiative were first used in Swiss cantonal government: the facultative referendum was used in the canton of Sankt Gallen in , the initiative in Vaud in , and the obligatory referendum in its modern form in rural Basel in though it had appeared in earlier forms in and Both institutions have since been used freely in federal and cantonal matters.
The Swiss experience with the devices of direct legislation was influential in the adoption of the initiative and the optional referendum in U.
The obligatory referendum on amendments to state constitutions proposed by state legislatures was first adopted by Connecticut in and has become the prevailing method for the amendment of all state constitutions.
Some states require a referendum on bond issues; and among local governments, the obligatory referendum is widespread for bond issues, tax questions, and related matters.
In the United States, these devices were adopted principally to curb the rule of political party machines and to correct the abuses and inadequacies of inflexible legislatures by granting the people a means to overrule legislative action and to initiate popular votes on legislation.
Although the referendum and the initiative find most widespread use in the United States and the Swiss cantons, they are also provided for in the constitutions of several European and Commonwealth countries.